Map Key
Generic Enzyme
Generic kinase
Protein kinase
Lipid kinase
Generic phosphatase
Protein phosphatase
Lipid phosphatase
Generic phospholipase
Generic protease
Metalloprotease
G-alpha
RAS - superfamily
G beta/gamma
Regulators (GDI, GAP, GEF)
Generic channel
Ligand-gated channel
Voltage-gated channel
Transporter
Normal process
Pathological process
Positive effect
Negative effect
Unspecified effect
Technical link
Disrupts in disease
Emerges in disease
Enhances in disease
Weakens in disease
Organsim specific interaction

Generic binding protein
Receptor ligand
Cell membrane glycoprotein
Transcription factor
DNA
RNA
Compound
Inorganic ion
Predicted metabolite or user's structure
Reaction
Generic receptor
GPCR
Receptors with enzyme activity
Mitochondria
EPR
Golgi
Nucleus
Lysosome
Peroxisome
Cytoplasm
Extracellular

Normal process
Pathological process
Binding
Cleavage
Covalent modifications
Phosphorylation
Dephosphorylation
Transformation
Transport
Catalysis
Transcription regulation
MicroRNA binding
Competition
Influence on expression
Unspecified interactions
Pharmacological effect
Toxic effect
Group relation
Complex subunit
Similarity reaction
A complex or a group
Organism specific object

Cytoskeleton remodeling Regulation of actin cytoskeleton by Rho GTPases


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Cytoskeleton remodeling Regulation of actin cytoskeleton by Rho GTPases

Regulation of actin cytoskeleton by Rho GTPases

Ras homolog gene family, member A ( RhoA ) downstream effector Rho-associated,coiled-coil containing protein kinase ( ROCK ) directly phosphorylates LIM domainkinases 1 and 2 ( LIMK1 and LIMK2 ) that in turn phosphorylatesCofilin. Cofilin exhibits Actin -depolymerizing activity followedby reorganization of the Actin cytoskeleton [1].

The activated ROCK also subsequently phosphorylates and inactivates the Myosinlight chain phosphatase ( MLCP ) [2] that attenuates Myosin lightchains ( MELC ) (myosin light chains) and Myosin light chain regulatory (MRLC ) phosphorylation [3].

Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 ( Rac1 ) downstream effector P21protein-activated kinase 1 ( PAK1 ) directly phosphorylates LIMK1 [4], inhibits MLCK [5], activates MRLC [6]and ARP2 actin-related protein 2 and 3 ( Arp2/3 ) complex [7].Arp2/3 complex nucleates new Actin filaments from the sides of preexistingfilaments. [8]. Also, WAS protein family member 1 ( WAVE ) plays acritical role downstream of Rac in that it regulates the Actin cytoskeletonrequired for membrane ruffling. WAVE share function as an inducer of Actinreorganization through profiling [9].

Cell division cycle 42 ( CDC42 ) initiates Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WASP )/ Arp2/3 nucleation of Actin [10]. Recruitment offactors, including Profilin, by WASP stimulates cellular Actin-based motility [11].