Selected targets of CREB1
Selected targets of CREB1 The cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 ( CREB1 ) is a nuclear proteinthat modulates the transcription of genes with cAMP responsive elements in theirpromoters. CREB1 activates transcription of target genes in response to a diversearray of stimuli, including peptide hormones, growth factors, and neuronal activity, . Increase in either calcium or cAMP concentration cantrigger the phosphorylation and activation of CREB1. CREB1 is critical for a variety of cellular processes, including proliferation,differentiation, and adaptive responses . For example, CREB1activates transcription of some proteins that participate in developmental signaling,such as Transforming growth factor beta 3 ( TGF-beta 3 ) , SRY(sex determining region Y)-box 9 ( SOX9 ) , Sprouty homolog 2 (SPRY2 ) . CREB1 is believed to be important for learning and memory, and to contribute toneuronal adaptation to drugs of abuse , . This role isrealized via transcription regulation of Arginine vasopressin ( Neurophysin-II ), Proenkephalin ( Enkephalin A ) , Prepronociceptin( Nociceptin ) , Prodynorphin ( Dynorphin ) and other types of regulatory proteins. CREB1 participates in hormonal control of metabolic processes, includingregulation of gluconeogenesis by the hormones glucagon ( Proglucagon )  and Insulin . In addition, CREB1 stimulatestranscription of Islet amyloid polypeptide ( Amylin ) . CREB1 participates in immunological and inflammatory signaling , , possibly via stimulation of Fc fragment of IgG low affinityIIa receptor ( Fc gamma RII alpha ) , Chemokine (C-C motif)receptor 5 ( CCR5 ) , Interleukin 13 ( IL-13 )  expression.