Map Key
Generic Enzyme
Generic kinase
Protein kinase
Lipid kinase
Generic phosphatase
Protein phosphatase
Lipid phosphatase
Generic phospholipase
Generic protease
Metalloprotease
G-alpha
RAS - superfamily
G beta/gamma
Regulators (GDI, GAP, GEF)
Generic channel
Ligand-gated channel
Voltage-gated channel
Transporter
Normal process
Pathological process
Positive effect
Negative effect
Unspecified effect
Technical link
Disrupts in disease
Emerges in disease
Enhances in disease
Weakens in disease
Organsim specific interaction

Generic binding protein
Receptor ligand
Cell membrane glycoprotein
Transcription factor
DNA
RNA
Compound
Inorganic ion
Predicted metabolite or user's structure
Reaction
Generic receptor
GPCR
Receptors with enzyme activity
Mitochondria
EPR
Golgi
Nucleus
Lysosome
Peroxisome
Cytoplasm
Extracellular

Normal process
Pathological process
Binding
Cleavage
Covalent modifications
Phosphorylation
Dephosphorylation
Transformation
Transport
Catalysis
Transcription regulation
MicroRNA binding
Competition
Influence on expression
Unspecified interactions
Pharmacological effect
Toxic effect
Group relation
Complex subunit
Similarity reaction
A complex or a group
Organism specific object

Selected targets of CREB1


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Selected targets of CREB1

Selected targets of CREB1

The cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 ( CREB1 ) is a nuclear proteinthat modulates the transcription of genes with cAMP responsive elements in theirpromoters. CREB1 activates transcription of target genes in response to a diversearray of stimuli, including peptide hormones, growth factors, and neuronal activity[1], [2]. Increase in either calcium or cAMP concentration cantrigger the phosphorylation and activation of CREB1.

CREB1 is critical for a variety of cellular processes, including proliferation,differentiation, and adaptive responses [2]. For example, CREB1activates transcription of some proteins that participate in developmental signaling,such as Transforming growth factor beta 3 ( TGF-beta 3 ) [3], SRY(sex determining region Y)-box 9 ( SOX9 ) [4], Sprouty homolog 2 (SPRY2 ) [5].

CREB1 is believed to be important for learning and memory, and to contribute toneuronal adaptation to drugs of abuse [1], [2]. This role isrealized via transcription regulation of Arginine vasopressin ( Neurophysin-II )[6], Proenkephalin ( Enkephalin A ) [7], Prepronociceptin( Nociceptin ) [8], Prodynorphin ( Dynorphin ) [9]and other types of regulatory proteins.

CREB1 participates in hormonal control of metabolic processes, includingregulation of gluconeogenesis by the hormones glucagon ( Proglucagon ) [10] and Insulin [11]. In addition, CREB1 stimulatestranscription of Islet amyloid polypeptide ( Amylin ) [12].

CREB1 participates in immunological and inflammatory signaling [13], [14], possibly via stimulation of Fc fragment of IgG low affinityIIa receptor ( Fc gamma RII alpha ) [15], Chemokine (C-C motif)receptor 5 ( CCR5 ) [16], Interleukin 13 ( IL-13 ) [17] expression.