Map Key
Generic Enzyme
Generic kinase
Protein kinase
Lipid kinase
Generic phosphatase
Protein phosphatase
Lipid phosphatase
Generic phospholipase
Generic protease
Metalloprotease
G-alpha
RAS - superfamily
G beta/gamma
Regulators (GDI, GAP, GEF)
Generic channel
Ligand-gated channel
Voltage-gated channel
Transporter
Normal process
Pathological process
Positive effect
Negative effect
Unspecified effect
Technical link
Disrupts in disease
Emerges in disease
Enhances in disease
Weakens in disease
Organsim specific interaction

Generic binding protein
Receptor ligand
Cell membrane glycoprotein
Transcription factor
DNA
RNA
Compound
Inorganic ion
Predicted metabolite or user's structure
Reaction
Generic receptor
GPCR
Receptors with enzyme activity
Mitochondria
EPR
Golgi
Nucleus
Lysosome
Peroxisome
Cytoplasm
Extracellular

Normal process
Pathological process
Binding
Cleavage
Covalent modifications
Phosphorylation
Dephosphorylation
Transformation
Transport
Catalysis
Transcription regulation
MicroRNA binding
Competition
Influence on expression
Unspecified interactions
Pharmacological effect
Toxic effect
Group relation
Complex subunit
Similarity reaction
A complex or a group
Organism specific object

Metalloproteases in connective tissue degradation


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Metalloproteases in connective tissue degradation

Metalloproteases in connective tissue degradation

Remodeling of extracellular matrix is possible due to activity of specific, skilledproteolytic enzymes present in connective tissue. Most proteolytic enzymes aremetalloproteinases. Metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in most of physiological andpathological processes in human body, such as the embryonic development and growth,tissue remodelling and repair,as well as digestion. Under normal conditions, MMPs arepresent in tissues at low levels that increase dramatically during any changes [1], [2]. Overexpression and activation of proteinases destroy theconnective tissue and contribute to many pathologies, e.g., arthritis [3],cardiovascular disease [4], tumour progression [5] and lungdisease [6],

Although similarities exist in the structure of the MMPs, there are also distinctdifferences in the recognition and specificity for components of the extracellular matrix[7]. Currently, the MMP family encompasses at least 25 related proteolyticenzymes that include four broad classes: the collagenases (e.g., MMP-1,MMP-13 ), gelatinases (e.g., MMP-2, MMP-9 ), stromelysins (e.g.,Matrix metallopeptidases 3 and 10 ( Stromelysin-1 and Stromelysin-2 ), andmembrane type enzymes (e.g., MMP-14, MMP-15, MMP-17 ). However,there are a number of family members that are classified outside of these four broadclasses [7].