Map Key
Generic Enzyme
Generic kinase
Protein kinase
Lipid kinase
Generic phosphatase
Protein phosphatase
Lipid phosphatase
Generic phospholipase
Generic protease
Metalloprotease
G-alpha
RAS - superfamily
G beta/gamma
Regulators (GDI, GAP, GEF)
Generic channel
Ligand-gated channel
Voltage-gated channel
Transporter
Normal process
Pathological process
Positive effect
Negative effect
Unspecified effect
Technical link
Disrupts in disease
Emerges in disease
Enhances in disease
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Organsim specific interaction

Generic binding protein
Receptor ligand
Cell membrane glycoprotein
Transcription factor
DNA
RNA
Compound
Inorganic ion
Predicted metabolite or user's structure
Reaction
Generic receptor
GPCR
Receptors with enzyme activity
Mitochondria
EPR
Golgi
Nucleus
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Peroxisome
Cytoplasm
Extracellular

Normal process
Pathological process
Binding
Cleavage
Covalent modifications
Phosphorylation
Dephosphorylation
Transformation
Transport
Catalysis
Transcription regulation
MicroRNA binding
Competition
Influence on expression
Unspecified interactions
Pharmacological effect
Toxic effect
Group relation
Complex subunit
Similarity reaction
A complex or a group
Organism specific object

Neuropeptides signaling through G-protein alpha-i & G-protein alpha-q


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Neuropeptides signaling through G-protein alpha-i & G-protein alpha-q

Neuropeptide signaling through G-protein alpha-i & G-proteinalpha-q

The signaling through G-protein alpha-i system is involved in many inhibitorycircuits in the brain. Neuropeptide activation of alpha-i G-protein-coupled receptorsgenerally leads to inhibition of cell excitability and release of neurotransmitters. Incase of opioids, this scenario leads to inhibition of pain transmission resulting inanalgesia. Neuropeptides are in tight interplay with each other. For example,opioid-induced analgesia could be modulated by Neuropeptide FF [1].

Wide range of physiological and behavioral events is regulated by neuropeptidesthrough G-protein alpha-i and G-protein alpha-q pathways. Orexinsmodulate feeding behaviour and energy homeostasis, as well as associated drinkingbehaviours. They also regulate the sleep-wake cycle. The peptidic neurotransmitterNeuropeptide Y, the most abundant peptide in the mammalian brain, is involved inthe regulatory loops that control food intake in the hypothalamus. It appears to beimportant for regulating the activity of neuroendocrine axes under poor metabolicconditions, and exerts vasoconstrictive action [1]. CNS effects ofNeuromedin B include effects on thermoregulation; regulation of TSH release,inhibition of feeding, stimulation of various CNS neurons, behavioral effects; andeffects on spinal sensory transmission [2]. Neuromedin U was firstisolated based on its ability to contract rat uterine smooth-muscle (hence the suffix"U") and has since been implicated in the regulation of smooth-muscle contraction, bloodpressure and local blood flow, ion transport in the gut, stress responses, cancer,gastric acid secretion, pronociception, and feeding behavior [3].Substance P belongs to tachykinin peptide family and is involved in nociceptionand neuroimmunomodulation, as well as development of diseases such as bronchial asthma,inflammatory bowel syndrome and psychiatric disorders [4], [5].