Map Key
Generic Enzyme
Generic kinase
Protein kinase
Lipid kinase
Generic phosphatase
Protein phosphatase
Lipid phosphatase
Generic phospholipase
Generic protease
Metalloprotease
G-alpha
RAS - superfamily
G beta/gamma
Regulators (GDI, GAP, GEF)
Generic channel
Ligand-gated channel
Voltage-gated channel
Transporter
Normal process
Pathological process
Positive effect
Negative effect
Unspecified effect
Technical link
Disrupts in disease
Emerges in disease
Enhances in disease
Weakens in disease
Organsim specific interaction

Generic binding protein
Receptor ligand
Cell membrane glycoprotein
Transcription factor
DNA
RNA
Compound
Inorganic ion
Predicted metabolite or user's structure
Reaction
Generic receptor
GPCR
Receptors with enzyme activity
Mitochondria
EPR
Golgi
Nucleus
Lysosome
Peroxisome
Cytoplasm
Extracellular

Normal process
Pathological process
Binding
Cleavage
Covalent modifications
Phosphorylation
Dephosphorylation
Transformation
Transport
Catalysis
Transcription regulation
MicroRNA binding
Competition
Influence on expression
Unspecified interactions
Pharmacological effect
Toxic effect
Group relation
Complex subunit
Similarity reaction
A complex or a group
Organism specific object

Cytoplasmic microtubules


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Cytoplasmic microtubules

Cytoplasmic microtubules

Microtubules are essential cytoskeletal polymers that are made of repeatingalpha/beta- Tubulin heterodimers and are present in all eukaryotic cells [1], [2], [3]. Cytoplasmic microtubules are vital forintracellular trafficking of proteins, vesicles and organelles. They also affect cellshape and cell motility [4], [5], [6]. All ofthese functions involve the interaction of microtubules with a large number ofmicrotubule-associated proteins ( MAP2, MAP4, Tau ), which areimportant for the regulation and distribution of microtubules in the cell, microtubuleassembly/disassembly and stability [7]. Microtubules are highly dynamic andtheir dynamic instability is based on the binding and hydrolysis of GTP by tubulinsubunits. Only dimers with GTP can polymerize [8].

Microtubule-associated molecular motors such as Kinesin s, Dynein s andMyosin s are involved in a variety of biological movements, e.g. axoplasmictransport and secretion [9], [10], [11].

The Dynactin complex regulates protein trafficking, movement of lysosomes andendosomes and axonogenesis [12], [13], [14].